托福听力原文翻译TPO17-L1 更新日期:2016-02-02 编辑:iyuba

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Narrator: Listen to part of a Lecture in an art history class.

听一段艺术史(史前艺术品断代)课程

Professor: Good morning, ready to continue our review of prehistoric art?

早上好!准备好接着复习史前艺术这一部分的内容了吗?

Today, we will be covering the Upper Paleolithic Period, which I am roughly defining as the period from 35,000 to 8,000 BC. 

今天我们会讲到旧石器时代前期,这个时期我粗略定为公元前 35,000 年到公元前 8,000 年。

A lot of those cave drawings you have all seen come from this period. 

你们已经见到的许多岩画就是在这个时期产生的。

But we are also be talking about portable works of art, things that could be carried around from place to place. Here is one example. 

但同时我们也会讲讲这个时期那些可以被携带到不同地方的艺术品。先举个例子吧!

This sculpture is called the Lady with the Hood, and it was carved from ivory, probably a mammoth’s tusk. 

这儿有一座雕塑,名字叫“带头巾的女人”;它是用象牙雕刻成的,很可能是猛犸象的獠牙。

Its age is a bit of a mystery. According to one source, it dates from 22,000 BC. 

它的年代有些神秘。从某种证据上推断,它的年代应该定在公元前 22,000 年左右。

But other sources claimed it has been dated closer to 30,000 BC. Amy? 

但是别的材料表明它的年代应该被定在前 30,000 年。艾米,有问题吗?

Amy: Why don’t we know the exact date when this head was made? 

艾米:为什么我们不知道雕塑的确切日期呢?

P: That’s a fair question. We are talking about prehistory here. 

教授:这个问题问到点子上了。我们这里讲的内容是史前时期的艺术!

So obviously the artists didn’t put a signature or a date on anything they did. 

所以,显然,那时的作者们不会在任何作品上留下签名或者日期。

So how do we know when this figure was carved? 

那么,我们怎么才能知道作品创作的大致时间呢?

Tom: Last semester I took an archaeology class and we spent a lot time on, studying ways to date things. 

汤姆:上学期我上了考古学课,我们在这门课上花了很多功夫学习怎么给文物断代。

One technique I remember was using the location of an object to date it, like how deep it was buried. 

我记得,其 中一项技巧是通过文物的出土地点来给文物断代,比如它出土的深度之类的。

P: That would be Stratigraphy. Stratigraphy is used for dating portable art. 

教授:那就是所谓的地层学。地层学正是移动性艺术品的断代方法。

When archaeologists are digging at a site, they make very careful notes about which stratum(strata), which layer of earth they find things in. 

当考古学家在挖掘某个坑位时,他们会很注意文物出土的地层,即文物是从哪一个地层被发掘出来的。

And, you know, the general rule is that the oldest layers are at the lowest level. 

并且, 想必你们也知道,地层断代法的一般原理是,越古老的东西,出土地层就越是靠下。

But this only works if the site hasn’t been touched, and the layers are intact. 

但是这只对那些完全没有被盗掘过的坑位有效,因为这些坑位的地层关系完好无损。

A problem with this dating method is that an object could have been carried around, used for several generations before it was discarded. 

这种断代的一个缺点是,有可能某一件东西从一个地方被带到了另外的地方,被好几代人用了之后才被(丢弃)埋入土中。

So it might be much older than the layer or even the site where it was found. 

这样的话,它的实际年代可能要比它在坑位中的实际层位体现出来的年代要早得多。

The stratification technique gives us the minimum age of an object, which isn’t necessarily its true age. 

层位断代技术只能给我们提供一件文物创作年代的最小值,这个最小值并不一定是它创作的真正时代。

来源:托福考试

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