2014年6月28日托福阅读真题及答案解析 更新日期:2014-10-24 编辑:



eventual adj.最终的

initial adj.最初的

facilitate=make easier vt.使便利

advent n.出现,到来

encompass vt.包围

encompass=include v.包含

stationary adj.固定的

durable adj.耐久的


utilize v.利用

virtually adv.事实上;实际上


adjacent=neighboring a.毗邻

hence adv.因此

irreversible=permanent adj.永久的







解析:问题及解决类的文章。解决方法还分为有效和无效两种。不能带着主观意识去妄自预 测文章内容走势。一定要做到忠于并彻底读懂原文。


Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dryland farming.

Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.

Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5000 years, and was the basis of the economy and society of numerous societies, ranging from Asia to Arizona.


North America 

Main article: Hohokam

In North America, the Hohokam were the only culture to rely on irrigation canals to water their crops, and their irrigation systems supported the largest population in the Southwest by AD 1300. The Hohokam constructed an assortment of simple canals combined with weirs in their various agricultural pursuits. Between the 7th and 14th centuries, they also built and maintained extensive irrigation networks along the lower Salt and middle Gila rivers that rivaled the complexity of those used in the ancient Near East, Egypt, and China. These were constructed using relatively simple excavation tools, without the benefit of advanced engineering technologies, and achieved drops of a few feet per mile, balancing erosion and siltation. The Hohokam cultivated varieties of cotton, tobacco, maize, beans and squash, as well as harvested an assortment of wild plants. Late in the Hohokam Chronological Sequence, they also used extensive dry-farming systems, primarily to grow agave for food and fiber. Their reliance on agricultural strategies based on canal irrigation, vital in their less than hospitable desert environment and arid climate, provided the basis for the aggregation of rural populations into stable urban centers.






这里有几道题:1.如果云多了地球会怎样。答案一定是反射回去的能量多了呗 2.吸收的过程是怎么样的,答案应该是复杂的,貌似2.是个单词题
Earth’s energy budget
[From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]
Earth’s climate is largely determined by the planet’s energy budget, i.e., the balance of incoming and outgoing radiation. It is measured by satellites and shown in W/m2.
Earth’s energy budget or Earth’s radiation balance, describes the net flow of energy into Earth in the form of shortwave radiation and the outgoing infrared radiation out to space.
The Earth’s equilibrium surface temperature is defined by radiative equilibrium, the balance between the incident and outgoing radiation budget. Climate change is defined by changes in Earth’s energy budget.
Outgoing, longwave flux radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (Jan 26-27, 2012). Heat energy radiated from Earth (in watts per square meter) is shown in shades of yellow, red, blue and white. The brightest-yellow areas are the hottest and are emitting the most energy out to space, while the dark blue areas and the bright white clouds are much colder, emitting the least energy.
Received radiation is unevenly distributed over the planet, because the Sun heats equatorial regions more than polar regions. Earth’s heat engine, are the coupled processes of the atmosphere and hydrosphere to even out solar heating imbalances through evaporation of surface water, convection, rainfall, winds, and ocean circulation. The Earth’s energy balance will depend on many factors, with the incident absorption varying with atmospheric and surface factors including cloud cover (albedo), snow cover, atmospheric aerosols, and vegetation and land use patterns, and the outgoing radiation also varying with atmospheric and surface emissivity. These factors all vary with time.
Changes in surface temperature due to Earth’s energy budget changes do not occur instantaneously, due to the inertia (slow response) of the oceans and cryosphere to react to the new energy budget. The net heat flux is buffered primarily in the ocean heat content, until a new equilibrium state is established between incoming and outgoing radiative forcing and climate response.

When the amount of the solar energy reaching Earth equals the thermal energy amount being radiated out, the radiative forcings are in a state of radiative equilibrium or balance.